2- Explain the fundamental problem with dualism. How does Hegel resolve this problem?
Problem with dualism is that the homo noumenon: the ideal, God-like, intellect, reason (morality based on Kant) and the soul; are fundamentally different from the homo phenomenon: the body, senses, desires and emotions. “ The body will die but the soul will go on.” There was a war between the idea of whether we all or should be just mind, subjective, Intellect and reason; or being objective, worldly, body, desires and senses. The problem was that we can't be one without the other. And if we could hows do they communicate. There was also the issue of freedom and guilt. The ultimate vision that we humans would like to have is to be perfect. But if one thinks that he/she is perfect then there comes the issue of pride followed by guilt (according to christions, pride is a sin). Freedom from the body will give us untimate freedom which also brings about the issue of internal war between us as humans among our consiousness and the devil. Hegel solves this issue by saying that humans are God but they fail to realize it. The more we go through life and pass the obsticles that we face everyday, the more godlike we become. Basically that our mind is God's mind and the body is the consiousness which is directed.The mind which is subjective can't see itself, therefore when subject looks at an object, it is held before consiousness and so its seen by the subject. Bottom line we are God but don't realize it.
3- “ Feuerbach asserts....” Explain the significance of this quotation from Tucker's book.
Feuerbach belives that God is man. Feuerbach argues that dialectic method by which the mind/ humans come to recognize God is incomplete if it doesn't recognizes that all the attributes of God are in fact attributes that have been objectified in this world for human species. Feuerbach transforms Hegel's “Geist”into human-species as a whole, transforming the union of consiousness with spirit into a union of individual consiousness with everyone else's consiousness as species. Feuerbach also takes God out of the equation and believes that theology is a study of humanity. He treats all objects of human experiences as “revelations of human nature”, he treats all human experiences as psychological phenomenon. Feuerbach also argues that human beings will find even greater satisfaction in realizing that religion is actually about ourselves and not this greater beiong that we have created in our minds. For Feuerbach religion is alienated. He takes humanities positive remarks/ qualities such as creativity, intelligence, love, and etc; out of God and puts then in the objectified God which id Man.
4- Who is God, according to Hegel, and what is he doing? What role does Christianity play in this history according to Hegel?
According to Hegel, man is God. Man fails to recognize that he is God though. So when Jesus came down to earth tell people that they were God, they didn't understand. Jews have been slaves for so long that they believed that a savior should save them from the Romans. So when Jesus fails to make them recognize themselves as God, they didn't belive in him to be the messiah, since he didn't save them from the Romans, therefore they crusified him. Later christions belived that everyone that is Godlike and is holy is taken away. Forexample, the jews had the Temple, which was burned by the romans. Since then they belive that you should take God out of the individual and put it in heavens or some greater state of mind, So that it can't be destroyed. Therefore God or the idea of God is within us, is in our minds, therefore we are God. Hegel was a christion, he regards christion revelation (christianity) as a representation of the spirit.
5- How according to Marx, has money become God? Explain using quotations from the text to support your position. Give an example of this form of alienation in Fight Club.
According to Marx, our labor is what we are. Everyday we sell oursdelves into slavery to the capitalist in return of the money that we are paid per hour in return for our labor.
We then use the money that we are given by the capitalists and buy “stuff” with it. We as humans belive that the things we buy and own are the fundementals of who we are. The big house, the nice car, expensive cloths and corporate job which we think is a good job, all represent a good person in this society. Money brings you not only wealth but power and status, according to humans. What they fail to realize is that not only does money become an addiction but also it takes over your life like a dangerous disease, Cancer. According to the movie Fight Club, the character of Brad Pitt, Tyler Durden clearly states “ The things you own end up owning you.” Because what you own, should not be the limit of who you are nor should it define you as an individual. Also Tucker states in his book, in several places that “ But on analysis of this concept it becomes clear that though private property appear to be the source, the cause, of alienated labor, it is really its consequense, just as the gods in the beginning are not the cause but the effect of man's mental abberation. Private propert is the function of alienated labor, not vice versa. Far from being the source and cause of productive living, the institution of private property is its outgrowth and its consequence. Alienated labor is itself the prior fact; it is a form of living that generates private property as its procuct. It too, likle the gods, must be grounded in man's abberation.” (P. 136)
1- In chapter 9, Tuckerexplains that according to Marx, the capitalist is alienated as well. Explain how the capitalis is alienated.
Based on Tucker's argument in chapter 9, Capitalism was created by man, so if man can be alienated and is also is alienated from the product that it produces, then it, the capitalist, can also be alienated. Also we should keep in mind that the capitalist have an estrangement between themselves and the product that they produce. Therefore with the creation of different products for the use of different consumers, the capitalist in a since is alienated, seperated with what we know as the difference between the consumer and the producer. The capitalists are the victim of the system as much as we are in a sense of alienation. They have lost connection with the products that they make and also they have no control over the system. In communism as suggested by Marx, since everyone stands at ground zero, equal to one another, therefore capitalist and consumers are the same and if the consumer can be alienated in the sense of greed for money, then spo can the capitalist for wanting to be the number one also in greed for more money.
6- Explain the problem of the subjective/objective split, according to Hegel.
According to Hegel, subjective is: consiousness, the will, the will to make decisions and handle information, intelligence, the idea and simply everything that is not worldly. Objective is: the body, senses, wordly posessions, desires and feelings. Hegel believes that consiousness is directed, so subjectivity is directed in that it can see things. The object can be held before consiousness, its an idea. Since subjectivity is perfect, it can see other things but it can't see itself. In better termenology, God is subjective, therefore God doesn't know who he is himself since he can't see himself. So he created us in the body which is objective, so that he can see his own self and abilities. That is also Hegel's explanation of God being human. Since God is also confused about who he is, he created himself through abjects, Humans, so that he can behold himself. Sunjects can see objects and objects can behold subjects like us humans holding God within us.